The currently developing technology of acoustic vector sensors (AVS) has several potential applications. Unlike conventional acoustic sensors such as microphones and hydrophones which measure acoustic pressure, the AVS makes simultaneous measurements of acoustic pressure and the three orthogonal components of particle velocity at a point. Thus AVS measurements provide a more comprehensive description of the acoustic field which is very useful in several applications. For example, a single AVS can estimate the direction of an acoustic source in free space or half space. Sparse AVS arrays with a small number of sensors can localise acoustic sources more accurately and efficiently than larger and denser arrays of microphones / hydrophones. This talk will provide a brief introduction to the theory of acoustic vector sensor measurements and present the results of some recent research on localisation of acoustic sources in air and under water using an AVS array.
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